Pea is one of the leguminous plants with the shape of a bean. Yes, it also completes the life cycle within the space of one year, making them annual crops.
Growing peas is easy, especially if you’re someone who is already familiar with gardening, however, understanding the various peas growing stages will not only aid in its yield but also help its development.
There are different varieties of peas generally, but peas take 60 days to 70 days to grow, and there are basically 8 stages of pea growth, starting from germination stage, seedling stage, vegetative stage, reproductive stage, pollination stage, fertilization, maturation, and seed dispersal stage.
In this article, we will look at the different growth stages of pea plant!
Different Peas Growing Stages
If you want the best out of your peas this season, you must have an upgraded knowledge of how peas grow. Let’s quickly look at them.
1. Germination Stage
Germination is the first growth stage of a pea plant. At this stage, water is needed to help soften the pea seeds. Planting peas in moist soil is good too.
It makes the plants absorb water easily from the soil through capillary actions. Once the seeds coats soften, the coats split. This sprouting is caused because the embryo within the seeds has swollen.
After the sprouting, the pea develops some root hairs which attach themselves to the soil while the shoot moves upwards for support too.
After about 14 days, the stem keeps growing followed by the emergence of the leaf buds. With this, the plant can undergo photosynthesis due to its exposure to light.
See Also: Rice Growing Stages
2. Seedling Stage
The next stage after germination is the seedling stage. This is characterized by the emergence of the true leaves.
Do not forget that strong and healthy roots and stems are very important here. During this stage, some plants may die off if the environment is not favorable.
Therefore, ensure that there is enough sunlight and water content to help the seedling.
3. The Vegetative Stage
Out of the different stages of pea growth, the vegetative stage has the longest duration. Here, the plant keeps increasing both in size and height.
Below are distinct characteristics of this stage.
Increase In The Number Of Leaves
As the plant grows, more leaves develop. Generally, the leaves are made of two parts.
- The blade houses the nutrients and chlorophyll
- The petiole acts as a connection between the blade and the plant stem
These developed leaves can serve as covers when the weather becomes temperate. Furthermore, the leaves are edible and often referred to as foliage.
Increase In Height And Size
Cell division also happens at this stage which aids in the increment of plant cells thereby adding to the height of the plant. Yes, if you are very observant you will notice that the plant grows taller and even adds in size.
Looking at the leaves, the upper ones gradually become smaller while the lower leaves get bigger and larger. This very characteristic increases with time.
Peas are leguminous plants and hence can be called cover crops. It is at this juncture that the plant begins to spread. This branching or spreading of the pea plant across the surface of the ground is known as a bushing.
Flowering Of The Plants
If you want to know how close your pea plant is to maturity check if there is the presence of flowers. They help pea plants in the process of reproduction by housing the male and female reproductive structures. Some of them are;
- The pollen is made of grains that are transferred to the female for fertilization.
- The nectar attracts pollinators like bees, birds, and butterflies for pollination. Nectar is a tasty liquid produced by flowers that provides nourishment to pollinators.
4. The Reproductive Stage
Another stage of peas growth is the reproductive stage which is a very important stage because it goes a long way in determining the quality of the peas.
During this stage, a lot of changes take place. Kindly read down as we discuss them below.
5. The Pollination Stage
Pollination is the transfer of the pollen grains from the anther to the stigma. This is usually made possible by pollinators such as bees, butterflies, and other insects.
The female organ houses the fruit while the stamens contain the pollen grains.
Pea plants are self-pollinating. This means they can attract pollinators. This is made possible through their scented flowers which are usually white and purple.
6. The Fertilization Stage
Immediately after pollination, fertilization takes place. This is done when the pollen moves to the ovary and fertilizes the ovules.
Next is the development of seeds from those fertilized ovules. Once this is done, the flowers die off thereby leading to the swelling of the ovary.
This swelled ovary is the long covering that is tube-like.
7. The Maturation Stage
The maturity of the pea seeds can be determined by taking a close look at the elongated covering which is the swollen covering.
They are easily seen and felt from outer space.
8. Seed Dispersal
If you are growing peas for agricultural or economic purposes, you should harvest them before the pods of the seeds dries.
Once the seed pods dry out, the seeds begin to disperse. And new plants germinate.
See Also: 8 Different Grape Vine Growing Stages
Frequently Asked Questions
How long do peas take to mature?
There are different varieties of peas out there. However, most peas take three to four weeks to mature after flowering.
How long does it take for peas to grow from seed?
It is all dependent on the temperature. If the temperature is around 38°F the peas will take about 20-30 days and 7-14 days around 65-90°F.
Why are my peas not germinating?
If you notice that your peas are not germinating then check if the seeds are expired or have stayed for more than two years. Also, ensure the soil isn’t waterlogged to avoid the seeds rotting.
How do I speed up my pea’s germination?
To speed up the germination stage of your peas, soak the seeds in water for two days before planting.
As discussed earlier, peas are easy to grow however, understanding the pea’s growth stages will aid in producing high-quality peas.
We have done justice to the different stages of pea growth it is now left for you to make wise use of them then, watch your peas blossom.